sea otter population graph

2 show growth patterns observed in three sea otter population stocks in Current distribution of sea otters including locations However depleted otter populations throughout Alaska’s Aleutian Islands still remain at 50% of their 1980 abundance. 2001). 1b. If the sea otter population was not expanding and reclaiming its lost habitat, I would consider relocation again. It is estimated that 90% of world's In a historic rebound, California sea otters, the frolicking ocean ambassadors of Monterey Bay and Big Sur, have reached their highest population level since 1982, when federal and state officials … As predators, sea otters maintain the balance of the kelp ecosystems. As resources in a population become less available, population growth a. becomes negative. Protection in the early 1900s enabled the population to grow and eventually re-occupy the entire area. There was a study conducted in Elkhorn Slough in California. (a) Construct a graph that shows how otter density depends on kelp abundance, using the data shown above. The translocation program allowed the reintroduction of sea otters to San Nicolas Island but also required the removal of sea otters from a “no-otter” management zone. Sea otters also maintain a high level of internal heat production to compensate for their lack of blubber. But sharks are only part of the problem. 1: Recent sea otter population growth graph from the Western Ecological Research Center (2007) Differences between Moss Landing and West Cliff: Moss Landing harbor has a unique environment. Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis), also known as California sea otters, were listed as threatened in 1977 under the Endangered Species Act. In recent years, sea otters have expanded into the upper reaches of Glacier Bay including Scidmore Bay, Russell Passage, Tarr Inlet, and Adams Inlet. The spring 2019 mainland sea otter count began on May 1 and was completed by July 9. In this article you’ll get to know about the sea otter population as well as how many sea otters are left in the wild. A standardized method to survey sea otters was developed by WERC scientists and put into use in 1982 in California. Structure Harvester indicated K = 1, and structure output graphs at K = 2 and K = 3 both revealed a clear lack of genetic structure ... Should the northern and southern sea otter populations eventually merge, it would increase the genetic diversity of the CA population, potentially improving health and increasing adaptive potential. Estes’s observations revealed an “extraordinarily high” sea otter population around Amchitka, inhabiting a lush undersea world of kelp forests. The ultimate goal of southern sea otter recovery is to reestablish ecological relationships in the ecosystems where sea otters and other nearshore species coevolved. is estimated that 90% of the world population of sea otters reside in An extensive review of the translocation program was completed in 2012, resulting in termination of the program. Survey procedures involve counting animals during the "spring survey" -- generally beginning in April and wrapping in June, depending on weather conditions. Along the coast of Alaska from the peninsula south, otter populations have been steadily increasing at a rate of 12-14% a year and there, kelp forests dominate. The tail comprises less than a third of the body length. Information and Media Sources: Wikipedia Page. Depending on factors such as habitat, sex, reproductive status, and per-capita prey availability, obtaining this quantity of food requires that sea otters spend 20-50 percent of the day foraging. b. increases slowly. two. SURVEY . This suggests that something unique is negatively otter populations in WPWS annually to track the progress of sea otter recovery, except in 2001 and 2006. changes in the sea otter population have little effect on biodiversity . 2493 Portola Road, Suite B Today southern sea otters have reclaimed about 13 percent of their historic range: the mainland coastline from San Mateo County to Santa Barbara County, California, and San Nicolas Island, Ventura County (as a result of translocation efforts initiated in 1987). However hunting which began the downfall of the sea otter in the Northern Pacific Ocean. Once an endangered species as a result of fur trading, otter populations recovered and appeared very healthy and robust in the early 1980s. Pup rearing and provisioning impose high energetic costs on females, requiring them to increase foraging effort during this period and leaving them highly susceptible to stressors they may encounter when they come into estrous after weaning, such as infections and aggression by males. Tags: Question 19 . The population of threatened southern sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, an estuary in Central California, has made a significant comeback as a result of Monterey Bay Aquarium's Sea Otter Program. Which statement below best explains what might have occurred to the population of insects at point A? Scientists have classified the sea otter as a keystone species in communities along the Pacific coast of North America. Destroying the sea otters will cause the fish population to decrease. Send keyboard focus to media. This sea otter population trend chart shows the number of otters has been falling since 2009. c. reaches carrying capacity. Sea otters Over the summer, 27 are eaten and 8 die from disease. Figure 1: Sea otter population measured off the coast of Vancouver Island Sea otters once ranged from Northern Japan to central Baja California, and had an estimated global population of between 150,000 and 300,000. When you graph a population's exponential growth over time, you will have an S-shaped graph. The very recent (2015-2016) increase in sea otter numbers in the center of the range may be due to an increase in sea urchin abundance resulting in part from the near-total loss of sea stars, an important predator of sea urchins, from the Pacific coast due to wasting disease. [25] Researchers surveyed sea otter populations along the mainland coast, from Pigeon Point in the north to Gaviota State Park in the south, and also the distinct population at San Nicolas Island in the southern California Bight. This is a graph showing population of sea otter off the cost of California. See It Yourself! Examine the graphs in the Lab Book, and describe any trends you observe among kelp, purple sea urchin, and sea otter populations. source: Fueled by abundant prey resources, the translocated sea otter populations grew at about 18 percent annually through the early 1990s (Bodkin and others, 1999). as the sea otter population decreases, biodiversity increases. Sea otters, especially diseased ones, are being preyed upon by sharks (see Chapter 12), which leads to population declines, and the most dramatic increase in killer whale predation upon that species is part of a general 'megafauna collapse' (Springer et al. Fig. The state of Alaska re-introduced about four hundred of the animals to Southeast in the 1960’s and they have thrived. Sea otters act to maintain a wide variety of other populations in the community. The southern sea otter was widely believed to be extinct due to the expansive fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries, which reduced the global population from between 150,000 and 300,000 to roughly 2,000. Following protection under the Fur Seal Treaty in 1911, the sea otter population rebounded dramatically in the 20th century. of successful translocations. Because of their consumption of large quantities of marine invertebrates, sea otters play a significant role in nearshore marine ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean, enhancing not only kelp forests but also seagrass beds. US Fish and Wildlife Service Estes’s observations revealed an “extraordinarily high” sea otter population around Amchitka, inhabiting a lush undersea world of kelp forests. drought. Keystone species are organisms that have large-scale community effects disproportionate to their abundance. But, despite all of this, it is safe to conclude that overall, the total sea otter population has increased over the 10 year span shown in the graph. Graphs in Figure Which of the following is not likely to be a limiting factor on the sea otter population? Sea otters will eat virtually anything they can get their little paws on. Based on the graph shown, how can you tell sea otters are a keystone species? 2001) ... and residential human population) to each otter survey point and united the information using the “spatial join function” in ArcGIS. Enature. The … The International Fur Seal Treaty protected … A. Estes (http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/noframe/s043.htm). Map of Alaska indicating general locations of three genetically Bering Island was recolonized by growing populations around Medny Island in 1970. impacting the Southwest stock since the other stocks continue to prosper. predator prey relationship graph, The graph above shows the predator population in blue and the prey population in red – and is generated when the predator is both very aggressive (it will attack the prey very often) and also is very dependent on the prey (it can’t get food from other sources). He found that about 350 kilometres to the west of Amchitka, off a remote island called Shemya. Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis), also known as California sea otters, were listed as threatened in 1977 under the Endangered Species Act. Sea otters live in the ocean. Destroying the sea otters will allow the fish population to remain constant. Other threats to southern sea otters include entrapment or entanglement in fishing gear, oil spills, and climate change. answer choices . Study: 77 Percent of Marine Mammals, Sea Turtles Recovering Under Endangered Species Act . site was created by Lynn Tran at the North Carolina State University, Department Recent aerial surveys Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis), also known as California sea otters, were listed as threatened in 1977 under the Endangered Species Act. Sea otter populations exhibit a high degree of spatial structure due to the limited mobility of reproductive females. . Russian explorers began the sea otter fur trade in the 1700s. a. disease c. drought b. competition d. predation ____ 8. Although it can walk on land, the sea otter is capable of living exclusively in the oce… Females typically give birth to a single pup, with care provided solely by the pup’s mother for the approximately 6 months until weaning. Very limited mixing of adult and sub-adult females between habitat areas only 50 kilometers (km) (31 miles (mi)) apart occurs, and many of the factors driving population trends, In March 1998, In 2001, the population consisted of 36 individuals. suggest: (U.S. [24] In August, 2011, the Environment Agency announced that otters had returned to every county in England since vanishing from every county except the West Country and parts of Northern England. J. L. Bodkin, R. J. Jameson, J. Graphs in Figure 2 show growth patterns observed in three sea otter population stocks in the north Pacific resulting from natural range expansion. The graph below shows the population trend for the species since 1985, with population estimates calculated as three-year running averages of annual survey counts. Range expansion is key to southern sea otter recovery and to the restoration of ecosystems in which sea otters were once the keystone species. OAKLAND, Calif.— Most marine mammals and sea turtles in the United States that are protected by the Endangered Species Act are recovering, according to a peer-reviewed study published today by the academic journal PLOS ONE. The data for Figure 3 shows all sea otters the researchers encountered, while the data for Figure 4 shows sea otters with radio tags. on differences in genetics, morphology, and geographic distribution. Graph: Southern sea otter population trends. Why are they important? As a result, their energetic requirements are high, and they consume an amount of food equivalent to about 25 percent of their body mass per day. They often rest in coastal kelp forests, draping the kelp over their bodies to keep from drifting away. changes that would most likely lead to a decrease in the size of the sea otter population in the area. Sea otters along the mainland were surveyed from Pillar Point in San Mateo County in the north, to Rincon Point in the south at the Santa Barbara/Ventura County line (fig. For southern sea otters to be considered for removal from threatened species listing under the Endangered Species Act, the population index would have to exceed 3,090 for three consecutive years, according to the threshold established under the Southern Sea Otter Recovery Plan by the USFWS. The student measured the kelp abundance at 4 different sites, then spent a day at each site and marked whether otters were present or absent every 5 minutes during daylight hours. 1). Tags: Question 19 . 3 shows the general location of the three stocks. CALIFORNIA SEA OTTER POPULATION ANNUAL SURVEY – survey history and methodology . Fish & Wildlife Service, Marine Mammals Management Office, October Which of the following is NOT likely to be a limiting factor on the sea otter population? Diet of the Sea Otter. Below are demographic metrics for the Kuluk Bay sea otter population. Recently, the southern population has grown in some measure to more than 3,000 individuals. The Russian fur trade wiped out the southeast sea otter population by the early 20th century. “The population index has exceeded 3,090 for the first time, and that’s encouraging,” said Lilian Carswell, Southern Sea Otter Recovery Coordinator for USFWS, “but sustained population growth will require range expansion, which means that sea otters will somehow have to get past the shark gauntlets near the ends of the current range. CALIFORNIA SEA OTTER POPULATION ANNUAL SURVEY – survey history and methodology . unoccupied habitat have been 17-20% per year. answer choices . It By the 1900s, sea otters had almost been driven to extinction and were locally extirpated in many places. Sea otters are a keystone species, meaning if they are removed from an ecosystem the whole systems could fall apart. These stressors include biotoxins produced during harmful algal or cyanobacterial blooms, disease-causing pathogens such as the protozoal parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, and acanthocephalan parasites. 3. For the sake of this exercise, we will ignore E and I for population growth calculations. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. the north Pacific resulting from natural range expansion. It has an unusually large number of otters and, due to both tourism and Þshing, an unusually large number of people. Mating and pupping occur throughout the year, but on average across the range, a peak period of pupping occurs from October to January, with a secondary peak in March and April. Sea otters pray on sea urchins and urchins eat kelp. Reduced range and population size, vulnerability to oil spills, and oil spill risk from coastal tanker traffic were the primary reasons for listing. Morro Bay, along the central California coast, is an excellent place to view sea otters. 2013). US FWS officially divided the Alaskan sea otters into three stocks based However, starting in the early 1990s, Estes and his colleagues noted that otter population numbers were dropping precipitously. Why are they important? A A law is passed that results in less fishing in the area. ban, sea otters have shown healthy recovery. the sea otter population dereases due to the presence of urchins. As a consequence of their threatened status, southern sea otters are also recognized as depleted under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. This web To understand the relationship between the two, Estes needed to find an area that was devoid of otters and see what the kelp forests looked like. Another predator that may be responsible for the spiraling numbers of the Sea Otter is the great white shark, which causes an estimated 10% of Sea Otter deaths. After 1980s, the northern population off southern Alaska has not shown any reduction and it has now become stabilized. One of the main foods of sea otters is sea urchin, which eat … sea otter population should be designated a DPS. C Chemical runoff from a factory kills many crabs and small fish in the area. Figure The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean. 120 seconds . the percent of population decline between the years indicated for each In the United Kingdom , the number of sites with an otter presence increased by 55% between 1994 and 2002. Graph showing trends in abundance of sea otters in California, based on 3-year ... ground-based survey of the sea otter population at San Nicolas Island was completed earlier in the spring (April 19–23) under good/very good survey viewing conditions (View Score=2.5). and about normal in the southern half. Facebook Twitter Share. Early European explorers reported vast numbers of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in coastal waters of the Aleutian archipelago and mainland Alaska (Bancroft 1959; Lensink 1962). Among the 31 populations studied, 78 percent of marine mammals and … as sea otter population increases, biodiversity increases. To understand the relationship between the two, Estes needed to find an area that was devoid of otters and see what the kelp forests looked like. In Elkhorn Slough, a … Researchers surveyed sea otter populations along the mainland coast, from Pigeon Point in the north to Gaviota State Park in the south, and also the distinct population at San Nicolas Island in the southern California Bight. Without otters, the implication is that we would cease to have kelp forests at all. Extensive hunting of these animals for their valuable pelts eliminated the species from most of its historic range, which extended across the Pacific Rim from Japan to the Pacific coast of Mexico (Kenyon 1969; Lensink 1962; Reidman and Estes 1990; L. Rotterman and T Simon-Jackson, in litt.). The southern sea otter population, which once numbered about 16,000 animals, is hovering around 3,000 today. The graph above shows how the sea otter population has inclined since the oil spill in the Prince William Sound, Alaska in 1989. Population growth rates into This year’s overall count of … The latest count of this threatened species shows their population dropped to just 2,711, a decline of 3.6 percent. Surving otters were used to The southern sea otter population has been counted each spring using the same methods since 1983. Reduced range and population size, vulnerability to oil spills, and oil spill risk from coastal tanker traffic were the primary reasons for listing. Why did the researchers look at 2 different data sets? are found from the Gulf of Alaska around the Pacific Rim to northern Japan Our current understanding of the dynamics of the southern sea otter population is largely based on MMS-funded studies conducted during the 1980s (Siniff and Ralls, 1988), at a time when the population was increasing. Males weigh 22-45 kg and are 1.2-1.5 m in length. Based on the graph, how did the California sea otter population change from 1997 to 2007? Dr. David Eggleston, NCSU, Department of Marine, Earth, & Atmospheric Sciences. Traditionally, California’s iconic sea otter has stepped in to keep urchin populations in check. The Monterey Bay Aquarium features a sea otter exhibit and is involved in research and conservation related to this threatened marine species. Thus, there is an unusually high rate of interaction between the two. December 29, 2003 Sea otter counts are conducted annually by the U.S. Geological Survey. In Alaska, the sea otter population is higher, but declining steadily since the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Which would be least likely to be affected by a density-dependent limiting factor? Reduced range and population size, vulnerability to oil spills, and oil spill risk from coastal tanker traffic were the primary reasons for listing. Before the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries, sea otters ranged along the North Pacific Rim from Hokkaido, Japan to Baja California, Mexico. This would ensure that there were small communities in all of the habitats that they once occupied, and would very quick growth due to an abundance of resources in these untapped environments. Scientists researching Pacific sea otters find that many members of the population are infected by a parasite, and a number of the sea otters must be destroyed to save the entire sea otter population. Figure You therefore predict the sea otter population next year will be: Adult sea otters typically weigh between 14 and 45 kg (31 and 99 lb), making them the heaviest members of the weasel family, but among the smallest marine mammals. Southern Sea Otter. Seagrasses also provide important benefits, such as nursery habitat for many other species, shoreline protection, and carbon sequestration. The sea otter's population range has remained unchanged for a decade. Year B D 2001 15 4 2002 20 5 2003 25 8 2004 29 11 6. Q. Isle Royale is located in Lake Superior. Unlike most marine mammals, the sea otter's primary form of insulation is an exceptionally thick coat of fur, the densest in the animal kingdom. Southern Sea Otter. Arsenic accumulation in sea otters in Japan (Kubota et al. Q. In a historic rebound, California sea otters, the frolicking ocean ambassadors of Monterey Bay and Big Sur, have reached their highest population level since 1982, when federal and state officials … The effort to document all stranded southern sea otters continued. Unlike most other marine mammals, they have little subcutaneous fat, relying instead on their clean, dense, water resistant fur for insulation against the cold. Q. Data from both living and deceased sea otters continues to shed light on sea otter population ecology in different parts of the California coast. Table 1 estimates Since the 1911 international fur trade In the next two examples, students will be able to see how sea otter populations compare to the total population and to the adult sea otter population. The Marine Mammal Protection Act states that marine mammal stocks “should not be permitted to diminish beyond the point at which they cease to be a significant functioning element in the ecosystem of which they are a part.” For southern sea otters, this likely means that the population would have to exceed 8,400 animals in California alone. ____ 7. Dr. James Estes has studied sea otters off the coast of Alaska since the 1970s. Sea otters in Prince William Sound were from the original surviving 1911 population… According to the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the sea otter population will need to reach 8,400 individuals before it should be removed from the endangered species list. Trade in the oce… southern sea otters are a keystone species in communities along the rugged Sur! Disease c. drought b. competition d. predation ____ 8 method to survey sea otters shown. 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